If children are so shy that they rarely play with other children, though, they can be at risk of later problems. From early childhood through adolescence, socially withdrawn children are at risk for a wide range of negative outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties.
Kenneth Rubin will provide clarity on the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal and will examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early adolescent social withdrawal. He will also present a developmental framework describing the pathways leading to and from social withdrawal in childhood and discuss a novel early intervention for socially inhibited preschool-aged children. "The Turtle Program: Helping Shy Preschoolers Come Out of their Shells" is designed to help shy preschool children gain confidence in social settings and develop positive relationships with their peers and teachers. Rubin and his colleagues at the University of Maryland began the National Institute of Mental Health-funded intervention project in 2010.